Cambus Wallace, the ship that broke an island – 1894

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Thanks also to Clem Ebber’s posting in the SBMI Infrastructure Facebook group, alerting it to the Editor.

Cambus Wallace, the ship that broke an island – 1894

A recent school excursion to Stradbroke Island under the guidance of the great team at the Jacob’s Well Environmental Education Centre, revealed the fascinating story of a ship, the Cambus Wallace (or Cambuswallace).  Fascinated by the tale I came home and determined to find the story in Trove, the National Library of Australia’s online newspaper archive.  This post is a summary of my findings: a story of tragedy at sea, whisky rustling, and the splitting of Stradbroke Island in two.
The Cambus Wallace.  Source State Library of Queensland

The wrecking of a ship

The Cambus Wallace was a steel barque (a sailing ship with three masts) of 1592 tons (empty weight). Her maiden voyage was to deliver a cargo of salt, whisky and dynamite to Moreton Bay and then return to Glasgow with Queensland wool.

The cargo of the Cambuswallace; amounted to about 2,867 tons, of which 1,800 tons was salt. There was a good deal of paper and pig iron, besides a considerable quantity of goods of a salvable nature. [1]

The wreck of the barque Cambus Wallace, in Moreton Bay, has had the effect of increasing the price of salt quite 10s per ton. The principal line on board this vessel were 18[0]0 tons of coarse salt, 56 tons of rock salt, £4700 worth of dynamite, 220 tons of pig iron, 34 tons of whiting, 7330 gallons of bulk spirits, 5370 cases of spirits, and £610 worth of cornflour. A good deal of the liquor was consigned to a Rockhampton house. [2]

It is interesting to speculate on how 1,800 tons of salt would be used. It was consigned to Messrs Duffy Brothers, Bundaberg based merchants. [3, 4]

The Cambus Wallace had 27 crew onboard, a dog, and no passengers. [5]

The ship had faced bad weather for a significant portion of her voyage. [6]  Two of her boats were already lost and one crewman was carrying a broken rib. [7] She ran aground 200 metres offshore from Jumpinpin on Stradbroke Island, somewhere between four and five in the morning of September 3, 1894. One man managed to swim ashore to raise the alarm.

The captain with the crew struggled manfully to get the starboard lifeboat out, but all their efforts were rendered futile. One of the heavy seas that were now washing completely over the vessel and dashing in spray half-way up her masts stove in the boat, rendering it useless. Endeavours were then made to man the port lifeboat, but by that time the ship was heeling over so much to starboard that it was found impossible to get the boat out. Seeing that all hope of escape in this direction was impossible, a plucky seaman named Reid volunteered a couple of hours later with another to attempt to SWIM ASHORE WITH A LINE. Gustav Kindmerk was the name of the other seaman, and it was understood that he was to swim ashore in order to assist Reid in hauling in the line. The effort was futile. Reid managed to get half-way across the intervening distance between the ship and the land when he was struck by a piece of wreckage, and the line becoming foul of his neck he was hauled unconscious on board. Kindmerk had meanwhile succeeded in reaching the shore, and made all haste to the fishing camp at Currigee, whence a message was conveyed across to Southport announcing the wreck of the vessel and requesting aid. [8]

Interestingly Hargreaves in his small book, The Wreck of the Cambus Wallace, notes that Kindmark, a Swede, is unintelligible to the workers at the oyster camp.

The Curridgee oyster camp is a small settlement of multinational people working for the Moreton Bay Oyster Company, however no one at the camp can understand the Swedish sailor Kindmark.  His English is poor and he is rowed the relative short distance to Pacific Hotel at Southport at dusk where he meets William Hanlon, a local identity who lives at the pub.  Hanlon knows enough German to glean the basic story of the shipwreck from the Swede and raises the alarm to the local authorities, a police Sergeant. [9]

Meanwhile at 11am on the same morning a Steamer, the South Australian, captained by Captain Ussher, saw the Cambus Wallace in distress, her ensign inverted. Ussher attempted to go to her aid, but fearing for the safety of his crew instead made a swift journey to Moreton Bay to send for aid.  The steamer, Miner, was dispatched.

… upon consultation with the officers it was decided that as such a heavy sea was running it was impossible to launch a boat or render assistance. The whole of the crew of the Cambus Wallace were seen clinging in the mizzen rigging, and a very heavy sea was breaking over the vessel. While he stood by the mainmast of the stranded vessel went overboard, and he believed that the foremast will soon do the same. He saw several people walking about on the beach opposite the Cambus Wallace, but apparently they could render no assistance. [10]

By the time help had arrived five of the crew had perished, their bodies battered by the wreckage and surf as they sought the shore.  It was decided to bury them in the dunes. Another sailor who was very ill was transported via the Miner to Brisbane where he subsequently died.  He was buried in the Toowong Cemetery.

The wrecked crew had utilised all the material they could obtain as articles of clothing, and even then some of them were almost half-naked. The visitors were quickly made acquainted with the state of matters, and it was first intended to bring the dead seamen up to town for burial. As, however, Dr. Brookway, who had arrived from Southport, could give all the necessary certificates, and a sergeant of police was present, it was decided to inter the bodies on the island. …
While the party were on the island their attention was drawn by the shipwrecked sailors to the condition of a seaman named A. Peoples – one of the crew – who was lying in an apparently dying condition. It appears that Peoples, who is an old man-of-war’s man, managed to get safely ashore from the wreck, and seemed to be in good health. He left the other seamen, however, and on search being made, he was next day discovered on the beach all but dead. It was considered that the old sailor was suffering from extreme exhaustion. The dying man was taken with all care and haste to the Miner, where he was comfortably placed in blankets and received every attention. Notwithstanding all efforts, however, the poor old sailor breathed his last while the Miner was on her way to Brisbane, thus making the sixth man who had lost his life through the wreck. [11]

Photo of the wreckage of the Cambus Wallace.  When this appeared in the Northern Herald in 1915 it was dated 12 October 1894 – 39 days after the event.  When the same image appeared in the Brisbane Courier in 1933 it was dated as “soon after the wrecking”. Sources: (a) No title (1915, October 8). The Northern Herald (Cairns, Qld. : 1913 – 1939), p. 23. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from (b) THE WRECK OF THE CAMBUS WALLACE. (1933, July 22). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 16. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from

Response in the immediate aftermath

A cleanup began on the wreck, with one of the key responses being to destroy the dynamite made unstable by wetting. A Telegraph article reports a cycling and sailing trip to the wreck site which indicates that the dynamite was exploded on the beach.

… we sallied out, and, camera in hand, visited the graves of those who had perished, the wreck, and the cargo-strewn beach. The graves of the drowned men have been surrounded by a substantial fence. Hillocks of sand mark the resting places of the deceased. In the centre the stern piece of one of the ship’s boats, which bears the words, ” Cambus-wallace, Glasgow,” has been set up. This, which is so far the only epitaph, has appropriately enough been surmounted with a segment of the ship’s steering wheel, which came ashore in pieces. The enclosing of the graves has been carried out under the direction of Captain Wallace. The men are buried in firm sand. As to the wreck, the forecastle and bowsprit remain, with the foot of the foremast. The middle of the hull is out of sight, but the vessel’s sternpost is visible. For a great distance the beach is strewn with wreckage. Soon after we had returned to the tent, a terrific explosion nearly deafened us. We went out again to ascertain the cause, and learnt that the dynamite which, owing to the damage done by water, was in a highly dangerous state, was being exploded, we waited a little while in the rain to view the effect of the next explosion. We had not long to wait. The little busy knot of people engaged in the destruction dispersed rapidly, and soon there was an awful report. Sand was raised to a height of about 100 feet, and some of it, being carried over the land by the strong wind, fell in the bay like a heavy shower of rain.[12]

A fascination with Whiskey

By September 7, only four days after the wreck there are reports of looting of the wreck.

Mr. Irving, Collector of Customs, has received a telegram from Mr. Wassell, tide surveyor, stating that in company with Mr. Bennett, landing waiter, he captured a boat, manned by three men, containing eleven cases of whisky supposed to have been picked up from the wreckage of the Cambuswallace. The men were taken to Southport, where they would be prosecuted. From the telegram it would appear that the cargo was being looted. [13]

Later “Two brothers named Buckley [were] fined £25 each for stealing spirits from the wreck of the Cambus Wallace.” [14]

On 27 September there was a salvage sale for the cargo of Cambus Wallace, the expected arrival of Cambus whiskey onto the market even given as reason for a decline.

Trade in liquors has been notably dull, the dulness being probably partly due to buyers holding off in anticipation of the sale of the salvage from the Cambus-wallace, which takes place to-day.[15]

Classified Advertising (1894, September 26). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 8. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from

Having said that, not all of the whisky was recovered.

W. E. Hanlon in his address to the Historical Society of Queensland records his own observation of a drunk policeman and caching of whisky by the locals.

Early next morning Mr. Bob. Rawlins volunteered to sail me up in his boat to the scene of the disaster, and we took the sailor with us. It proved a windless morning and we had to row the whole distance, hot and thirsty, for we had omitted to take any water with us. I had informed the local police of the circumstances the night before, and the sergeant had forthwith hired a boat and had reached Jumpinpin at early dawn. Upon arriving there, looking up a steep wall of sand, I perceived the sergeant sitting in the shade of a pandanus tree, with whisky bottles around him. I asked him if he had any water, and was informed that there was none nearer than Swan Bay, but to “come up, my boy, there’s lashin’s of grog for the taking of it.”

I happened to look up while the interment was taking place, and saw practically all the oyster camp men conveying numerous quart bottles of Burke’s whisky from the beach to the adjoining scrub where it was buried for future reference. About this time a detachment of water police and other police arrived from Brisbane. They took command of the situation and speedily put an end to the wholesale pilfering that was going on. [16]

An article in the Brisbane Courier from August 1931 following the discovery of four bottles of whisky in the vicinity of the Curridgee, notes that 4,000 bottles remained unaccounted for. [17] A similar article in the Tweed Daily of the same year reports the finding of eight bottles, and the observation that many caches of whisky probably remain on the island.  Lost from being buried too deep or because the landmarks used to relocated them have changed. [18]

In 1933 a writer to the Brisbane Courier who went by the pen-name AJAX writes:

Whisky from this wreck was on sale in Southport and as far along the railway line as Beenleigh for many years, and, as it did not pay duty, its existence or the traffic in it was the bane of the Customs offlcers’ lives for a couple of decades afterwards. Is [sic] used to be a joke that if one wanted good whisky, well matured for several years in the wood, he would take a run to Southport or Beenleigh. Of course it meant knowing the ropes, as neither the publicans nor the fisher-folk the latter of whom had the stuff buried in the sands, had any desire to bring the Customs or Excise people pouncing down upon them. [19]

Ben Crop, the well known skin diver, reported diving on the wreck in the 1960s and 1970s and retrieving crates of whisky bottles during that time. [20]

The generosity of the public

September 7 also saw the establishment of a benefit fund for the wrecked sailors.

No less than £30 has been subscribed towards the fund to succour the shipwrecked crew of the Cambuswallace. Each of the crew has been provided with a complete suit of clothes, and the expenses incurred have been so far slightly over the amount subscribed. As the apprentices and youths will have no money coming due to them from the agents, it has been suggested that ladies who have the leisure might profitably occupy some of their spare time in making up articles to provide a kit for each of them. Mr. Fison has no doubt that the public will subscribe liberally to the fund, so that some substantial assistance may be given to the unfortunate sailors. [21]

The fund was quickly acquitted.

The amount subscribed to the fund for the aid of the shipwrecked crew of the Cambus-
wallace has reached £105, and thirty-three lists are still out. The amounts expended were £35 in clothes, half passage money for the apprentices by the Gulf of Lions (£21), £5 given to the mate, who is returning home on the Gulf of Lions, and 25s. to each of the fifteen sailors. [22]

The substantial list of subscribers to the fund was published in the Brisbane Courier. [23]

A memorial fund was also established and was probably separate to the relief fund.

Cambus Wallace Fund.
A detailed statement of the receipts and expenditure in connection with the Cambuswallace Memorial Fund, duly audited by Messrs. Turner and Strong, has been left at this office. It is shown that the total receipts from the concert and voluntary contributions amounted to £48 11s. The expenses amounted to £17 8s. 6d., leaving a credit balance of £31 2s. 6d. It is understood that £10 or £15 will be spent in erecting a monument, and the balance will be sent to the widows of the men who lost their lives by the wreck. [24]

Grave of crewmen killed in the shipwreck of the barque Cambus Wallace in 1894. Behind the stone column are the transom of one of the ship’s boats and a fragment of the ship’s wheel.  Source:

By September 11 a marine board of enquiry had begun. [25] Progress reports were published in the Telegraph. [26, 27] Captain Leggat had his certificate suspended for two years and Mr Martin, the second officer, for six months. [28] Leggat in his letter of defence published in the Brisbane Courier states that “It seems to me I have been found guilty of more than I had any hand in.” [29] His suspension was later shortened at the  instigation of the Scottish Shipmasters’ Association. [30]

The breaking of an island

By 1895 changes in the erosion patterns at the site of the Cambus Wallace were being noted.


Two things combine to make Jumpinpin especially interesting at the present time, one is the fact that it was the site of the sad disaster to the Cambuswallace, whose remains are still visible on the outer beach, and of the graves of the six unfortunate men who lost their lives on that occasion. The other is the remarkable changes which have taken, and are still taking, place along the foreshore, as the result of recent storms. These changes, if they continue in the direction which they have taken during the past year or two, are likely to result in Stradbroke Island being divided into two parts by the encroachment of the sea; with a channel through in the neighbourhood of Swan Bay, fifteen or sixteen miles from the southern end of the island. As is well known to frequenters of this part of the Bay during, say, the past twenty years, Jumpinpin – or Tuleen or Duleen, as it has variously been designated by boating people-has always been the narrowest part of Stradbroke. It is approached over a broad and shallow part of the Bay (which some say should properly be called the Broadwater) from either the main channel leading to
Southport or from the Canaipa Passage which follows the inner shore of Stradbroke Island. Some ten or twelve years ago the inner shore of Jumpinpin was lightly fringed with stunted mangroves, with only one small sandy spot at which to land. Now for fully a quarter of a mile the mangroves have disappeared, and in their place is a fine clean sandy beach. Then, too, one had to pass over two rows of high sand mounds, covered with grass and pandanus trees, to reach the sea-beach. Now there is only one mound, much lower, and the distance across is not more than half what it was. At one spot, indeed, only a few hundred yards from the usual landing-place, the highest ground (which is on the seaward side) for some little distance is not more feet above high-water mark. As another proof that the sea is gradually-or rather rapidly-eating its way into the land for miles along the beach the pandanus trees which were at one time growing on the high land are now strewn along the sand, some of them, although lying prone, being still green. In fact, one tree was seen at Easter lying on the beach with its fruit and leaves in quite a green state. On the seashore at Jumpinpin, and for several miles to the northward, the action of the sea in washing away the sand below high water mark has exposed to view patches of a black muddy formation in which are to be seen numbers of roots and partly decayed limbs of mangroves – a pretty clear evidence, in the opinion of most people, that what is now the seashore was at one time the shore of the inner bay. But it is some distance further to the northward where the most pronounced and what promises to be the most important change has taken place – a change which was reported upon some time ago by Mr. Gardiner, boatman pilot at Southport. A comfortable hour’s walk from Jumpinpin will take one to the spot referred to. Here, for a distance of 400 yards, all that remains of dry land between the sea and an inner mangrove swamp forming the head of Swan Bay, is an almost level ledge of soil at no place more than a foot above the permanent high-water mark on the sand of the seashore. The long grass that was at one time growing along this ledge has been washed flat on the ground, and killed ; the trees appear to be dying, and over the ledge on the inner side has been deposited a large body of white sand, evidently from the sea beach. At two or three places the outer edge of the land for a few feet has been broken away, leaving a gentle sandy slope from the seaward side right across the bank. The plank of a vessel has been washed across from the sea to the inner side of the small bank. It is quite evident from these appearances that at every spring tide the waves wash over in considerable volume all along the 400 yards of what is left of Stradbroke Island at this place, finding their way into the swamp before mentioned, and ultimately into Swan Bay, which opens into Moreton Bay close to Jumpinpin. The place was visited by the writer at high tide several days after the last spring tides, when ordinary south-easterly weather was prevailing, and even then occasional waves washed over the land. At this spot, too, is to be seen on the sea beach black soil similar to that of the swamp inside ; while the beach is here more thickly strewn with trees than at any other point. Whether or not a permanent passage will ultimately be formed from the sea into Moreton Bay at this place is of course only a matter of conjecture. It may be that if we have a cessation of gales for a sufficient time the sea beach may make again ; but at present appearances are all in favour of the passage being opened. The washing away of every little more soil will enable the sea water to run in a current through the channel thus formed, and then the opening must be rapidly increased. It is affirmed by some-non-professional men, it is true – that the tides inside the Bay in this locality now never rise as high as on the outer beach ; and if this be true, the opening of a fresh passage may have a serious effect upon some of the low lying islands which are inhabited not far away, but whether this will be so or not can only be determined by experts. The inrush of the sea at a fresh point would certainly affect existing navigable channels, and might affect the oyster industry so extensively carried on in the southern part of Moreton Bay. Under the circumstances, it seems that the port official might devote some attention to the matter, and by having surveys and other
examinations made, either set at rest any anxiety that may be felt or show that there is cause for it. [31]

By May 1898 the island had broken.

Graves Washed Away.
Effects of Late Storms.
New Channel at Stradbroke.
For some time past, it has been evident to yachtsmen and others who visited that part of Stradbroke Island known as Jumping Pin, that a breach of the sea across the
low-lying neck of sand between the Pacific Ocean and the bay at that place was imminent. At times the tops of heavy rollers have been known to run across the sands almost into Swan Bay, and at a place further south, and below the spot where the graves of the Cambuswallace seamen were, there was a gutter across the neck which seemed to indicate that in time a channel would be formed there.
News has now been received that the action of the recent gales on the coast, coupled with
the abnormally high tides, about Sunday and Monday, May 8 and 9, has effected a clean
breach through the island, and there is now a deep channel about half a mile wide at Jumping Pin. The channel has been formed, not exactly where it was expected, but has taken in ground which it was thought would be clear of it, and the graves of the Cambuswallace seamen have been washed away. The sea now runs through the new channel and well into the bay with a strong current. The lightkeeper at Southport, Mr. Andrew Graham, has written to the portmaster, Captain Almond, as follows: “I went up to Broadwater to-day to see the extent of opening made by sea at Jumping Pin. The opening is half a mile wide, and keeps extending south. There is a deep channel on the north side of opening. The seas break right inside up to the mangrove islands. The deep water channel on northern side leads towards Canaipa passage. It is too rough for the small boat. I have to cross the opening to Swan Bay. The water in Broadwater is of a black colour. I believe the opening will keep open for good. “The sea men’s graves are washed away.”
The effect of the break in the tides is expected to be very material. The skipper of one of the oyster boats, states that he used to be able to run on one tide from McLeay Island to the Broadwater, which he finds he cannot do now. From what he saw of it, he expects the channel will prove to be a permanent one. Captain Fison, the shipping inspector, who is well acquainted with the locality, will make an inspection of the place this week.  [32, 33]

A human skull was found.

Mr E. B. Port brought with him the remains of a human skull, which he found on Stradbroke Island, somewhere in the vicinity of Jumpin Pin. The matter was reported to the police, but it is not considered likely that there is anything suspicious as the remains are probably those of one of the unfortunate sailors of the Cambus Wallace, which was wrecked in that neighbourhood many years ago. [34]

Gold Coast City Council likewise identifies the formation of the Spit as a result of the breach in Stradbroke in 1897-98.  It notes also that:

After the breakthrough, tidal action eroded sand from the southern tip of South Stradbroke resulting eventually in the surveyed township site of Moondarewa disappearing entirely by the 1940s. [35]

An article in the Hobart Mercury notes:

So far the sea has made little inroad into the northern island. On the southern end, however, it is claiming the island in a manner which is little less than spectacular. Houses which were more than a quarter of a mile inland less than a year ago are now right on the edge of the water. Tennis courts which were played on one Saturday are likely to he under water the next Saturday. The disappearances are serious for those who have bought land on Stradbroke Island. [36]

Hanlon (1934) does not link the Cambus Wallace wreck to formation of the Southport spit per se but makes the following observations about the  changes in how the currents worked following the breaking of Stradbroke.

Break Through at Jumpinpin.
This part of the bay has all silted up now, and, where once it was deep and blue water, the seaweeds now show on the surface at low tides. This is all the result of the break-through of the ocean at Jump- inpin, which break was caused in the following manner — or so it appears to me. Before this rupture took place all the waters discharging from the Albert and Logan rivers, the Pimpama creek, the Coomera, and all the other little streams of that part, found their outlet at Southport, where they met the dis- charge from the Nerang coming in a diametrically opposite direction. The former combination of waters was far more voluminous and strong than the latter; and consequently kept the smaller discharge in check with a tendency to erode the spit at the mouth of the Nerang. The volume and great force and impetuosity of the major current kept the
southern channel scoured out to its rocky bottom. Now these northern waters find their outlet at Jump- inpin, consequently the Nerang currents preponder- ate, and are incessantly carrying and depositing silt in the old deep channels and foreshores. In addition they are sluggish, compared to the impetuosity of the old times. They have likewise extended the southern sandspit almost a mile to the north of its old confines, shifting the outlet to the ocean that far, with the intrusion of deposited sand, and it would seem that this northward extension will go on till the opposing pressures of the opposite currents become balanced. For this reason, I fancy that nothing less than the closing of the break at Jumpinpin will meet the case — a task almost beyond human
achievement, seeing that there is no foundation, except pure sand, at Jumpinpin.
If the old conditions, when the waters of the Logan and other streams were discharged at theSouthport end of the Bay, could be restored. Nature would probably restore the deepwater channels as they were before the break took place. I myself saw the break-through at the narrow neck of Jumpinpin, during which the ever-encroaching seas seemed to melt the sand, with standing scrub on it, as though it were sugar—large areas collapsing in one sweeping surge.
The actual incidence of the break was the result of a continuance of heavy gales banking up a mountainous sea along this part of the coast, culminating at the top of a king tide, and from a difference of levels of the ocean and bay’s waters. When it was high tide outside it was about low water inside. The fury of the gale drove a small trickle of water right across the dividing neck. This was quickly and incessantly followed by others, each widening the gap. The incoming waters, pouring down the precipitous inner bank in a cataract, soon made a channel for the sea to cascade into the bay, and once started, nothing on earth could retard its destructive progress. [37]

Point of Wonder – that events which would seem minor in the a geological scale of things, the wrecking of a ship, can change a landscape not only at the site but across a region, the silting of southport and the formation of the spit.


[1] Barque Cambus-Wallace. (1894, September 5). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 2. Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
[2] See also COMMERCIAL. (1894, September 8). Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 – 1954), p. 4. Retrieved December 19, 2017, from
[3] Wreck of the Camb[?] Wallace. (1894, September 6). Gympie Times and Mary River Mining Gazette (Qld. : 1868 – 1919), p. 3. Retrieved December 21, 2017, from
[4] LOCAL AND GENERAL. (1894, July 13). The Bundaberg Mail and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1892 – 1917), p. 2. Retrieved December 21, 2017, from [5] RECENT SHIPWRECKS. THE LOSS OF THE CAMBUSWALLACE. (1894, September 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), p. 7. Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
[6]  “CAMBUS WALLACE WRECK” (1950, April 19). South Coast Bulletin (Southport, Qld. : 1929 – 1954), p. 16. Retrieved December 22, 2017, from
[7]  WRECK OF THE CAMBUSWALLACE. (1894, September 5). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 5. Retrieved December 24, 2017, from
[8]  WRECK OF THE CAMBUSWALLACE. (1894, September 5). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 5. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[9]  Hargreaves (2006)
[10]  WRECK OFF QUEENSLAND. (1894, September 4). The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 – 1931), p. 5. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[11]  WRECK OF THE CAMBUSWALLACE. (1894, September 5). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 5. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[12] Cambuswallace Wreck. (1894, September 24). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 2. Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
[13]  THE LAND PURCHASE BILL. (1894, September 7). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 4. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[14]  QUEENSLAND. (1894, September 12). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), p. 5. Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
[15]   COMMERCIAL. (1894, September 28). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 2. Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
[16] W. Hanlon (1934) The early settlement of the Logan and Albert Districts. (Read before the Historical Society of Queensland, 27 March 1934).
[17]  Sidelights. (1931, August 15). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 18. Retrieved December 22, 2017, from
[18]  LOOT WAS BURIED TOO DEEP. (1931, August 11). Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 – 1949), p. 4. Retrieved December 22, 2017, from
[19]  THREE NOTABLE WRECKS. (1933, July 4). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 8. Retrieved December 21, 2017, from
[20]  Hargreaves (2006)
[21]  THE LAND PURCHASE BILL. (1894, September 7). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 4. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[22]  THE CAMBUSWALLACE FUND. (1894, September 14). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 4. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[23]  Classified Advertising (1894, September 26). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 8. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
[24]  Cambuswallace Fund. (1894, November 3). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 5. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
[25]  LOSS OF THE CAMBUSWALLACE. (1894, September 11). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 7. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[26]  CambusWallace Wreck. (1894, September 15). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 2. Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
[27]  CambusWallace Wreck. (1894, September 18). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 2. Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
[28] QUEENSLAND. (1894, September 29). Leader (Melbourne, Vic. : 1862 – 1918), p. 26. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
[29]  WRECK OF THE CAMBUS[?] WALLACE. (1894, September 28). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 3. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from
[30]  Epitome. (1895, July 27). The Queenslander (Brisbane, Qld. : 1866 – 1939), p. 188. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
[31] STRADBROKE ISLAND. (1895, April 17). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 6. Retrieved December 25, 2017, from
[32]  Graves Washed Away. (1898, May 18). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 4. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
[33]  GRAVES WASHED AWAY. (1898, May 23). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 – 1931), p. 2. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
[34]  Human Skull Found. (1914, June 1). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 6. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
[36] CHANGES IN EARTH’S SURFACE (1938, January 17). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), p. 8. Retrieved December 25, 2017, from
[37]   W. Hanlon (1934) The early settlement of the Logan and Albert Districts. (Read before the Historical Society of Queensland, 27 March 1934). Available via UQ Library.  Google the article title to gain access, as the hyperlink has a time out function.
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